New beginnings dating langhorne
Austria, Bavaria, and the territories subject to spiritual lords were Catholic, although many of these afterwards became Protestant. In 1534 Pope Paul III invited the Protestants to a general council.
From the beginning Lutheranism was torn by doctrinal disputes, carried on with the utmost violence and passion.The new teachings, however underwent a great change after Luther's return from Wartburg (1521).Before he died (18 Feb., 1546), his teachings had been propagated in many states of Germany in Poland, in the Baltic Provinces, in Hungary, transylvania, the Netherlands, Denmark and Scandinavia.From these European countries Lutheranism has been carried by emigration to the New World , and in the United States it ranks among the leading Protestant denominations.(1) The Lutherans in Germany (a) First Period: From the appearance of Luther's Theses to the adoption of the Formula of Concord (1517-80) Favoured by the civil rulers, Lutheranism spread rapidly in Northern Germany.The Protestant League was continually increased by the accession of other states, and a religious war broke out in 1546, which resulted in the Peace of Augsburg (1555).
This treaty provided that the Lutherans should retain permanently what they then possessed, but that all officials of ecclesiastical estates, who from that time forth should go over to Protestantism would be deposed and replaced by Catholics.
In doctrine official Lutheranism is part of what is called orthodox Protestantism, since it agrees with the Catholic and the Greek Churches in accepting the authority of the Scriptures and of the three most ancient creeds (the Apostles' Creed, the Nicene Creed, and the Athanasian Creed ).
Besides these formulæ of belief, Lutheranism acknowledges six specific confessions which distinguish it from other churches: These nine symbolical books (including the three Creeds ) constitute what is known as the "Book of Concord", which was first published at Dresden in 1580 by order of Elector Augustus of Saxony (see FAITH, PROTESTANT CONFESSIONS OF).
Luther preferred the designation "Evangelical", and today the usual title of the sect is "Evangelical Lutheran Church ".
In Germany, where the Lutherans and the Reformed have united (since 1817), the name Lutheran has been abandoned, and the state Church is styled the Evangelical or the Evangelical United.
This first appeared in the Sacramentarian controversy between Luther and Zwingli (1524).